Physical methods include a variety of methods extraction technology. Former Soviet Union first proposed artificial earthquakes, oil refinery gas fracturing and ultrasonic methods. United States, Canada for some heavy heating method using electromagnetic waves. China since the 1980s, since the basis oil equipment from abroad, has launched a variety of physical methods of oil recovery methods and field trials, and some development of technology has begun to take shape.
Microbial enhanced Oil processing is abroad in the 1980s developed a stimulation, has more than 100 oil fields in the world were tested, but not yet formed a large-scale application. Microbial enhanced oil recovery in two ways, one in oil injected microorganisms, for single-well stimulation; two injection wells is injected directly into the micro-organisms, with the injection of water reservoir for flooding. China has in Jilin, Food dehydrator, Xinjiang, Daqing oilfields for industrial application of microbial enhanced oil recovery site, have achieved good initial results.
The technology was first put forward by the United States and large-scale commercial applications. Since the early 1970s, began using the polymer plugging, chemical machine for pellets and profiling technology has developed rapidly, has become a high water cut oil field water flooding effect to improve the dominant technology. Currently, for different reservoir profile control agent developed many types and plugging agent, for example, a polymer gel, particle type, precipitation, and microbial agents and foam and the like. In addition to the development of various types of blocking agent, but also on the water shutoff profile abroad mechanism of decision-making technology, Tracer monitoring technology, construction technology, oil expeller and implantation process is carried out a systematic study of the formation of a relatively complete water shutoff sectional supporting technology. China in recent years have done a lot of work, forming a series of technology, in the colloidal dispersion of solid particles in the gel and the gel has its own characteristics, but technically still a gap with foreign countries.
Because EOR surfactant and additives are anionic sulfonate and Briquette machine, its enhanced oil recovery is most significant, so here focuses on EOR important anionic sulfonate and carboxylate synthesis and preparation. Sulfonation of the salt used in preparation of the sulfonating agent, concentrated sulfuric acid are used? Oleum? Trioxide and chlorosulfonic acid. For oil expeller industrial production, comprehensive comparisons to sulfur trioxide sulfonation process optimization, its versatility? Security? Applicability are better and lower cost. So sulfonate synthesis industry gained wide application and development.
(1) white oil production by-products method. In the production of white oil refining using sulfonation process, removal of aromatic hydrocarbons in the feedstock oil and other active ingredients, is the main product is a mineral oil and Food dehydrator, in the water phase is mainly petroleum sulfonate. Such petroleum sulfonate average relative molecular mass between 400 and 580 for over sulfonate. Flooding EOR used as a surfactant required, the need for a certain degree of modification. (2) crude sulfonation. Generally having a boiling point of 210 ~ 500 ℃ reduction in second distillate as a raw material, the direct use of sulfur trioxide or fuming sulfuric acid sulfonation, and then the obtained alkali alkyl aryl sulphonates. The method of using the raw oil refining production petroleum sulfonate, its treatment process for the heavy - Distillation - hydrogenation - furfural refining - sulfonated - and in other procedures. The petroleum sulfonate prepared sulfonated crude product performance with different nature are machine for pellets. High aromatic content naphthenic crude oil, petroleum sulfonate production byproducts less easy to obtain with the formation of ultra-low interfacial tension of oil products; while paraffin base crude oil aromatics content, the production of by-products of petroleum sulfonate up to 60% , high production costs, in terms of economic and process by-products is limited. (3) two-step sulfonation. First, the Act of crude oil in the catalyst reacts with SO2 and Cl2, the crude oil alkane sulfonyl chloride generated, then SO3 sulfonation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the crude oil to generate sulfonated aryl sulfonates, obtained by NaOH. alkyl sulfonates and aryl sulfonates. Advantage is that the entire fraction can generate oil sulfonates, sulfonated integrated conversion rate of 70% or more, reducing by-products, reducing costs. Petroleum sulfonates prepared above three method of standard products concentrate active matter content is generally 60% to 63%, about 35% of saturated hydrocarbons, about 2% to 5% moisture content. But it can be made up to 80% active matter content, and as 30% of the products used directly.
Synthetic sulphonates include alkyl benzene sulfonates? Alkyl sulfonates? Heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate, etc., wherein the alkyl group having a carbon number of C14 ~ C16 alkylbenzene sulfonic acid weight Salt can be used with the majority of our crude Oil processing ultra-low interfacial tension system, which has become an important surfactant flooding. Heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate production methods based on different raw materials are mainly three kinds, as described below: (1) dodecylbenzene production method. This method is the main raw material in the production process oil expeller production accounts for about 10% of alkylbenzenes. Dodecylbenzene heavy alkylbenzene with different production methods, composition and structure are very different. (2) UOP method. The method is based on kerosene as raw material, through hydrogenation of unsaturated materials removed, and dehydrogenation into α-olefin, and then with benzene alkylation of benzene production process, is currently the more popular methods. Dodecylbenzene using this method obtained when producing heavy alkylbenzene, alkyl having a carbon number in the C14, mainly around ingredient C17, is a straight-chain alkyl-based alkyl compound, as well as some polyalkyl ? alkyl benzene and alkyl benzene rings connected with an alkyl compounds. (3) wax lysis. With wax cracking as the alkylating agent, and benzene in the catalyst, after Fourier AlCl3 catalyzed reaction alkylbenzenes having a molecular weight than kerosene obtained product as a raw material is high, an alkyl group having a carbon number in the C15 ~ C20, C17 which ~ C19 as a main component.
Carboxylate by petroleum oil fractions by high temperature oxidation, and then by saponification? Extraction of the product obtained. It belongs to the oxidative cleavage product saturated hydrocarbon complex composition mainly containing an alkyl carboxylate salts and aryl carboxylate salts. Production of oil carboxylate main raw material for regular oil expeller and second-line fraction to vapor phase or liquid phase oxidation oxide production. Vapor phase oxidation process with oxygen in the air as oxidant at 325 ℃, oleic acid cadmium oxide as a catalyst, the oxygen / hydrocarbon ratio of 2.20, the water / hydrocarbon ratio of 25 to 50. After the reaction product was saponified with NaOH to remove the oil phase, to obtain petroleum products carboxylate, effective content was 10%. Liquid phase oxidation in the vapor phase oxidation process is a process based on a new method developed by liquid oxidizing agent to conduct the reaction at 180 ℃, the machine for pellets of carboxylate may be raised to 20%. Oil is an important carboxylate cosurfactant, together with synthetic alkylbenzene sulfonates, can increase the stability of the surfactant system? Dilution resistance and compatibility with a base.